Window Replacement Tax Credit Hazard

Many homeowners here in Hazard are looking to replace their worn-out windows with new windows that operate and perform better, are more durable, require considerably less maintenance and are more energy efficient than the wood, steel or aluminum windows that were used when their homes were built.

Window Suppliers

Most people look at new windows as an expense, they’re not. New windows are an investment in your home. An investment which, if made wisely, not only increases the value of your Hazard home, but at the same time, cuts your energy bills, increases your comfort and reduces maintenance cost. However, like any investment decision, you need to determine what gives you the greatest value, not necessarily the lowest price.

Average Cost New Windows

You need to educate yourself so you really understand what you are getting for your money. This is why it is important for a homeowner to work with someone they trust who walks them through the various options so they can make an educated buying decision.In most cases, style is already determined by the architecture of the house and the type of windows that are presently there. However, it is possible to change window styles, change opening sizes, add bays and bows, or do a variety of other things that will dramatically change the appearance of your home inside and out.

Glass Window

Since it represents the largest area of the window, glass obviously has the biggest impact on energy loss. Glass technology has made tremendous strides over the last few years. Things like low conductivity spacers, low emissivity, or Low-E, coatings and gas filling have drastically cut the amount of energy that flows through the glass.Low-E is an almost invisible metallic coating that works like a one-way mirror, reflecting heat back into your home during the winter and reflecting it out during the summer.

Replacing All Windows In House

There are different types of Low-E coatings with different performance levels. Better performing coatings, like Titanium, cost a little more, but are well worth the money. Don’t settle for products made with regular clear glass that is not coated.Warranties are also very important. Be sure you understand them fully. Just because it says Lifetime don’t assume every component of the window and installation is covered forever. And remember, the warranty is only as good as the people who back it.

Replacement Windows – A Buyers Guide For Hazard Homeowners

Efficient Windows

A replacement window is a window that is installed in an existing window opening as replacement of the existing window. Old weather beaten windows deteriorate and become loose and drafty. They need replacement not only to improve the appearance of the house but also to take advantage of modern energy efficient windows that bring about an overall improvement of the ambiance of the house at low recurring cost of heating and cooling.[1]

Replacement windows are designed for a variety of installation situations and techniques.

In a full-frame installation, trim around the old window (interior and/or exterior) is removed and the old window frame is removed completely. The new replacement window is secured to the studs surrounding the window opening, and the trim is replaced.

Insert installations are sometimes used when replacing older wood windows with frames that are in good condition. In this case, the new replacement window is installed within the existing frame. This installation technique is simpler than a full-frame installation, but decreases the size of the window opening due to the nesting of the frames.

Another technique involves replacing the window sashes only, and re-using the existing frame.

New-construction windows of recent vintage typically have a "nailing fin" along the outer frame. This fin provides a surface so that the window can be nailed in from the outside of the home before the application of flashing, siding or brick and stone veneers. Most replacement windows are manufactured without this fin so that they can be installed with minimal disruption to the existing trim, siding, sheetrock or exterior veneer.

Replacement windows are available in several materials including wood, fiberglass, aluminum-clad wood, vinyl-clad wood, vinyl, glass blocks and other composite materials. The most common materials for new windows are PVC-u and wood.[1]

Replacement windows can increase resale value[2] and energy efficiency. Several types of typical windows are listed and discussed here.

Wood windows were used from the early 1900s to the present but became less of a mainstay of the industry in the 1960s. They are prevalent in the Northern United States. Steel and aluminum casements and Steel Vertical Operators were used from the 1950s through the 1960s. Aluminum windows were used in the 1960s through the present. Vinyl windows were established in the 1970s through the present. The last decade has also seen the admission of composite materials such as fiberglass and vinyl-wood-polymer type products.

Wood "drop-in" replacement windows and vinyl windows are designed to sit in place of the existing sashes and are constructed at 3 1/4" thickness in most cases. These type windows sit in the opening where the top and bottom sash originally moved in their respective wooden "tracks" The stop between the two sashes must also be removed in this type of refurbishment or retrofit installation. It requires minimal movement of existing trims both inside and out.

The alternative is to replace the entire wood window including jambs. This requires the reworking of interior and exterior wood trim to accommodate the size of the modern wood window. Modern wood windows are available in with 4 9/16" jambs as a standard feature but can be equipped with "jamb extensions" to extend to 5 1/4" or 6 9/16". This is to accommodate the wall thickness as needed.

Modern windows have two or more layers of glass. This is known as double glazing or triple glazing. An argon gas has is usually held between these additional layers of glass which helps to make the windows more energy efficient and keep our outside noises. Triple glazed windows are more energy efficient than double glazed windows, but with their additional weight, they are not always available to work with every size of window frame. In the United States, the Energy Code sets certain standards for performance of products installed in homes. These codes now require Low-E Glass in all residential homes.

Low-E is a film that is several layers of metal poured microscopically thin over the surface of newly poured glass. This heat reflective film is transparent but can be darker or lighter depending on the type and manufacturer. This data is rated in Visible Light Transmission. Darker glass with heavier Low–E will have less VT. The NFRC rates most energy star rated window manufacturers.

Two main types of Low-Emissivity Glass are pyrolytic, or "hard coat", and spectrally selective, or "soft coat".

Pyrolitic glass is made mostly of tin oxides and is applied to "hot" float plate glass as it is cooling. Pyrolytic Low-e glass is extremely durable and gives glazing a lower u-value, or heat loss rating, than clear glass, making it ideal for northern Energy Star climate zones.

Spectrally selective glass is made of various metal oxides, mostly silver, and is applied to cool glass in an electro-magnetic vacuum sputter chamber. Spectrally selective low emissivity glass is very sensitive to oxygen and therefore has to be sealed in an insulated glass unit before it begins to oxidize. It scratches easily and is sensitive to pH, making it difficult to manufacture. It produces low u-values, both winter and night, and low summer daytime solar heat gain ratings, making it a preferred coating in mixed climate zones.

Introduced in the mid 2000's, newer "triple silver" low-e, also called High Performance low-e, are testing for even lower SHGC ratings, making the windows suitable for even the hottest southern climate (mostly cooling) zones. Also notable are new interior surface low-e coatings that provide very low u-values that are comparable to triple pane windows, often in the low 20's. Combining these two low-emissivity coatings can make a dual pane window exceed every Energy Star climate zone in the US.

Other options include triple-glazing (a third pane of glass), higher quality spacers between the panes, which reduce the failure rate and conduction that allows seal failure. This creates "fogging" or condensation to form between the panes. Modern windows also have optional gases between the panes that have higher insulative qualities than air, such as argon or krypton gases.

"Double-hung" windows are the most common traditional window. They have an upper sash and a lower sash, both of which slide up and down in the window opening.[3] "Single-hung" windows operate the same as "double-hung" windows, but their upper sash is fixed in place. By virtue of being stationary and permanently secured, single-hungs are often more energy efficient that double-hung windows depending on the type and style.

Most vertical operators (single- and double-hungs) now feature "tilt-in" sashes for cleaning of the exterior surfaces. The industry moved towards this approach for service and replacement reasons as well as accessibility to the exterior from the inside of the home.

Casement windows are hinged on one side and are typically operated using an interior hand crank. Awning and Basement windows hinge on top and bottom respectively.

Sliding windows, or "sliders", are sometimes used in openings that are wider than they are tall.

Non-operable or "fixed" windows also called "picture windows" are common in larger openings.

Retrofit replacement windows are custom manufactured to fit finished openings in sizes down to 1/8" or 1/4" in most cases. Builders-grade windows are constructed in specific sizes depending on the manufacturer. Wood windows also have "Standard Sizes" that determine the installation and application. Custom-sized wood windows are a rarity but are the most expensive of modern window products.

In 2009, the United States Federal Government passed a stimulus package allowing a 30% tax credit, with a $1500 cap, on purchases up to $5000 for qualifying energy saving products purchased in 2009 and 2010. This includes insulation, radiant barrier, air conditioning upgrades and most energy-efficient replacement windows and doors.

[4] There are also additional programs through state governments and utility companies that offer low-interest loans and grants to replace your windows with energy-efficient ones.

Due to the heavier weight and increased thickness of insulated glass, and the weakness of vinyl extrusions, window frames in replacement windows may be thicker in visual profile, thereby reducing glass area even in full-frame and sash replacement-only installations. This is not universally the case. Replacement window operation may not be identical to the windows that are replaced. For example, a typical existing older double hung window sash is capable of being opened nearly to the top of the window. Newer replacement window sashes typically can only be opened to approximately 4" from the top of the window - providing less open window area. On smaller bedroom windows that are required by building codes to allow egress in the event of a fire, the smaller opening area may not meet the code required minimum dimensions. And removing the sash, although it may be easy to do, is not allowed as a solution to this problem since the building codes specifically requires the window to be opened in the normal manner.

Windows: The Triple Pane Dilemma

Window Suppliers Window of traditional design in Porto Covo, Portugal Cylindrical lattice window of Sumburgh Head Lighthouse (Shetland).

A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and/or air. Modern windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material, a sash set in a frame[1] in the opening; the sash and frame are also referred to as a window.[2] Many glazed windows may be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather. Windows often have a latch or similar mechanism to lock the window shut or to hold it open by various amounts.

Types include the eyebrow window, fixed windows, single-hung and double-hung sash windows, horizontal sliding sash windows, casement windows, awning windows, hopper windows, tilt and slide windows (often door-sized), tilt and turn windows, transom windows, sidelight windows, jalousie or louvered windows, clerestory windows, skylights, roof windows, roof lanterns, bay windows, oriel windows, thermal, or Diocletian, windows, picture windows, emergency exit windows, stained glass windows, French windows, panel windows, and double - and triple paned windows.

The Romans were the first known to use glass for windows, a technology likely first produced in Roman Egypt, in Alexandria ca. 100 AD. Paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China, Korea and Japan. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century. In the 19th century American west, greased paper windows came to be used by itinerant groups. Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial plate glass making processes were perfected.

The English language-word window originates from the Old Norse 'vindauga', from 'vindr – wind' and 'auga – eye', i.e., wind eye.[3] In Norwegian Nynorsk and Icelandic the Old Norse form has survived to this day (in Icelandic only as a less used synonym to gluggi), in Swedish the word vindöga remains as a term for a hole through the roof of a hut, and in the Danish language 'vindue' and Norwegian Bokmål 'vindu', the direct link to 'eye' is lost, just like for 'window'. The Danish (but not the Bokmål) word is pronounced fairly similarly to window.

Window is first recorded in the early 13th century, and originally referred to an unglazed hole in a roof. Window replaced the Old English eagþyrl, which literally means 'eye-hole,' and 'eagduru' 'eye-door'. Many Germanic languages however adopted the Latin word 'fenestra' to describe a window with glass, such as standard Swedish 'fönster', or German 'Fenster'. The use of window in English is probably because of the Scandinavian influence on the English language by means of loanwords during the Viking Age. In English the word fenester was used as a parallel until the mid-18th century. Fenestration is still used to describe the arrangement of windows within a façade, as well as defenestration, meaning to throw something out of a window.

Fragment of a Roman window glass plate dated to 1st to 4th century A.D.
Note the obvious curvature, this is not a flat pane. Alabaster 'mullion' divided decorative windows in Santa Maria La Major church (Morella, Spain). Alabaster window in the Valencia Cathedral. Note the asymmetrical, slanted left side of the wall-frame, which lets sun rays reach the chancel.

In the 13th century BC, the earliest windows were unglazed openings in a roof to admit light during the day. Later, windows were covered with animal hide, cloth, or wood. Shutters that could be opened and closed came next.[when?] Over time, windows were built that both protected the inhabitants from the elements and transmitted light, using multiple small pieces of translucent material (such as flattened pieces of translucent animal horn, thin slices of marble, or pieces of glass) set in frameworks of wood, iron or lead. In the Far East, paper was used to fill windows.[1] The Romans were the first known to use glass for windows, a technology likely first produced in Roman Egypt. Namely, in Alexandria ca. 100 AD cast glass windows, albeit with poor optical properties, began to appear, but these were small thick productions, little more than blown glass jars (cylindrical shapes) flattened out into sheets with circular striation patterns throughout. It would be over a millennium before a window glass became transparent enough to see through clearly, as we think of it now.

Over the centuries techniques were developed to shear through one side of a blown glass cylinder and produce thinner rectangular window panes from the same amount of glass material. This gave rise to tall narrow windows, usually separated by a vertical support called a mullion. Mullioned glass windows were the windows of choice among European well-to-do, whereas paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China, Korea and Japan. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century.[4]

Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial plate glass making processes were perfected. Modern windows are usually filled with glass, although a few are transparent plastic.[1]

The term eyebrow window is used in two ways: a curved top window in a wall or in an eyebrow dormer; and a row of small windows usually under the front eaves such as the James-Lorah House in Pennsylvania.[5]

A fixed window is a window that cannot be opened,[6] whose function is limited to allowing light to enter (unlike an unfixed window, which can open and close). Clerestory windows in church architecture are often fixed. Transom windows may be fixed or operable. This type of window is used in situations where light or vision alone is needed as no ventilation is possible windows without the use of trickle vents or overglass vents.

A single-hung sash window is a window that has one sash that is movable (usually the bottom one) and the other fixed. This is the earlier form of sliding sash window, and is also cheaper.[1]

A sash window is the traditional style of window in the United Kingdom, and many other places that were formerly colonized by the UK, with two parts (sashes) that overlap slightly and slide up and down inside the frame. The two parts are not necessarily the same size; where the upper sash is smaller (shorter) it is termed a cottage window. Currently most new double-hung sash windows use spring balances to support the sashes, but traditionally, counterweights held in boxes on either side of the window were used. These were and are attached to the sashes using pulleys of either braided cord or, later, purpose-made chain. Three types of spring balances are called a tape or clock spring balance; channel or block-and-tackle balance; and a spiral or tube balance.

Double-hung sash windows were traditionally often fitted with shutters. Sash windows can be fitted with simplex hinges that let the window be locked into hinges on one side, while the rope on the other side is detached—so the window can be opened for fire escape or cleaning.

A horizontal sliding sash window has two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slide horizontally within the frame. In the UK, these are sometimes called Yorkshire sash windows, presumably because of their traditional use in that county.

Main article: Casement window Casement window

A casement window is a window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising either a side-hung, top-hung (also called "awning window"; see below), or occasionally bottom-hung sash or a combination of these types, sometimes with fixed panels on one or more sides of the sash.[2] In the USA, these are usually opened using a crank, but in parts of Europe they tend to use projection friction stays and espagnolette locking. Formerly, plain hinges were used with a casement stay. Handing applies to casement windows to determine direction of swing; a casement window may be left-handed, right-handed, or double. The casement window is the dominant type now found in modern buildings in the UK and many other parts of Europe.

Awning window

An awning window is a casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top, so that it swings outward like an awning. In addition to be used independently, they can be stacked, several in one opening, or combined with fixed glass. They are particularly useful for ventilation.[7]

A hopper window is a bottom-pivoting casement window that opens by tilting vertically, typically to the inside.[8] (Mostly used for schools)

A pivot window is a window hung on one hinge on each of two opposite sides which allows the window to revolve when opened. The hinges may be mounted top and bottom (Vertically Pivoted) or at each jamb (Horizontally Pivoted). The window will usually open initially to a restricted position for ventilation and, once released, fully reverse and lock again for safe cleaning from inside. Modern pivot hinges incorporate a friction device to hold the window open against its own weight and may have restriction and reversed locking built in. In the UK, where this type of window is most common, they were extensively installed in high-rise social housing.

A tilt and slide window is window (more usually a door-sized window) where the sash tilts inwards at the top and then slides horizontally behind the fixed pane.

A tilt and turn window can both tilt inwards at the top or open inwards from hinges at the side. This is the most common type of window in Germany, its country of origin. It is also widespread in many other European countries. In Europe it is usual for these to be of the "turn first" type. i.e. when the handle is turned to 90 degrees the window opens in the side hung mode. With the handle turned to 180 degrees the window opens in bottom hung mode. Most usually in the UK the windows will be "tilt first" i.e. bottom hung at 90 degrees for ventilation and side hung at 180 degrees for cleaning the outer face of the glass from inside the building.[9]

A window above a door; in an exterior door the transom window is often fixed, in an interior door it can open either by hinges at top or bottom, or rotate on hinges. It provided ventilation before forced air heating and cooling. A fan-shaped transom is known as a fanlight, especially in the British Isles.

Windows beside a door or window are called side-, wing-, and margen-lights and flanking windows.[10]

Jalousie or louvered window

Also known as a louvered window, the jalousie window consists of parallel slats of glass or acrylic that open and close like a Venetian blind, usually using a crank or a lever. They are used extensively in tropical architecture. A jalousie door is a door with a jalousie window.

Clerestory window Main article: Clerestory

A clerestory window is a window set in a roof structure or high in a wall, used for daylighting.

Main article: Daylighting Sidewalk skylight (also named 'pavement light') made of Glass brick in Burlington House, London

A skylight is a window built into a roof structure.[11] This type of window allows for natural daylight and moonlight.

Hexagonal external cladding panels of roof in Eden Project Biomes (Cornwall, England,)

A sloped window used for daylighting, built into a roof structure. It is one of the few windows that could be used as an exit. Larger roof windows meet building codes for emergency evacuation.

Main article: Cupola

A roof lantern is a multi-paned glass structure, resembling a small building, built on a roof for day or moon light. Sometimes includes an additional clerestory. May also be called a cupola.

Main article: Bay window

A bay window is a multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different angles to create a protrusion from the wall line.[2]

Main article: Oriel window

This form of bay window most often appears in Tudor-style houses and monasteries. It projects from the wall and does not extend to the ground. Originally a form of porch, they are often supported by brackets or corbels.

Main article: Diocletian window

Thermal, or Diocletian, windows are large semicircular windows (or niches) which are usually divided into three lights (window compartments) by two mullions. The central compartment is often wider than the two side lights on either side of it.

A picture window is a large fixed window in a wall, typically without glazing bars, or glazed with only perfunctory glazing bars near the edge of the window. Picture windows provide an unimpeded view, as if framing a picture.[12]

A multi-lite window is a window glazed with small panes of glass separated by wooden or lead glazing bars, or muntins, arranged in a decorative glazing pattern often dictated by the building's architectural style. Due to the historic unavailability of large panes of glass, the multi-lit (or lattice window) was the most common window style until the beginning of the 20th century, and is still used in traditional architecture.

An emergency exit window is a window big enough and low enough so that occupants can escape through the opening in an emergency, such as a fire. In many countries, exact specifications for emergency windows in bedrooms are given in many building codes. Specifications for such windows may also allow for the entrance of emergency rescuers. Vehicles, such as buses and aircraft, frequently have emergency exit windows as well.[13]

Visual effect Sunlight shining through stained glass Main article: stained glass

A Stained glass window is a window composed of pieces of colored glass, transparent, translucent or opaque, frequently portraying persons or scenes. Typically the glass in these windows is separated by lead glazing bars. Stained glass windows were popular in Victorian houses and some Wrightian houses, and are especially common in churches.[14]

A "French Window" (two French doors on an exterior wall hinged to open outward together without a mullion separating them) at the Embassy of France in Lisbon, early twentieth century.

A French door [15] has two rows of upright rectangular glass panes (lights) extending its full length and two of these doors on an exterior wall and without a mullion separating them, that open outward with opposing hinges to a terrace or porch, are referred to as a French Window.[16] Sometimes these are set in pairs or multiples thereof along the exterior wall of a very large room, but often, one French window is placed centrally in a typically-sized room, perhaps among other fixed windows flanking the feature. French windows are known as porte-fenêtre in France and portafinestra in Italy, and frequently are used in modern houses.

Main article: Insulated glazing

Double-paned windows have two parallel panes (slabs of glass) with a separation of typically about 1 cm; this space is permanently sealed and filled at the time of manufacture with dry air or other dry nonreactive gas. Such windows provide a marked improvement in thermal insulation (and usually in acoustic insulation as well) and are resistant to fogging and frosting caused by temperature differential. They are widely used for residential and commercial construction in intemperate climates. Triple-paned windows have been commercially manufactured and marketed with claims of additional benefit but have not become common. In the UK double-paned and triple-paned are referred to as double-glazing and triple-glazing.

Main article: hexagonal window

A hexagonal window is a hexagon-shaped window, resembling a bee cell or crystal lattice of graphite. The window can be vertically or horizontally oriented, openable or dead. It can also be regular or elongately-shaped and can have a separator (mullion). Typically, the cellular window is used for an attic or as a decorative feature, but it can also be a major architectural element to provide the natural lighting inside buildings.

EN 12519 is the European norm that describes windows terms officially used in EU Member States. The main terms are:

Casement window, with latticed lights In the UK and mainland Europe, windows in new-build houses are usually fixed with long screws into expanding plastic plugs in the brickwork. A gap of up to 13 mm is left around all four sides, and filled with expanding polyurethane foam. This makes the window fixing weatherproof but allows for expansion due to heat.

The United States NFRC Window Label lists the following terms:

The European harmonised standard hEN 14351-1, which deals with doors and windows, defines 23 characteristics (divided into essential and non essential. Two other, preliminary European Norms that are under development deal with internal pedestrian doors (prEN 14351-2), smoke and fire resisting doors, and openable windows (prEN 16034).[19]

5-chamber plastic window profile Examples of modern plastic and wooden window profiles with insulated glazing Modern wooden framed window fitted in the 14th century Lyme Regis watermill, UK.

Windows can be a significant source of heat transfer.[20] Therefore, insulated glazing units consist of two or more panes to reduce the transfer of heat.

These are the pieces of framing that separate a larger window into smaller panes. In older windows, large panes of glass were quite expensive, so muntins let smaller panes fill a larger space. In modern windows, light-colored muntins still provide a useful function by reflecting some of the light going through the window, making the window itself a source of diffuse light (instead of just the surfaces and objects illuminated within the room). By increasing the indirect illumination of surfaces near the window, muntins tend to brighten the area immediately around a window and reduce the contrast of shadows within the room.

Frames and sashes can be made of the following materials:

*PVC and fiberglass frames perform well in accelerated weathering tests. Because PVC is not as strong as other materials, some PVC frames are reinforced with metal or composite materials to improve their structural strength. **Modern aluminium window frames are typically separated by a thermal break made of a glass fibre reinforced polyamide. With a 34 mm thermal insulation profile it is possible to reach Uf= 1.3 W/m²K for a metal window. This greatly increases thermal resistance, while retaining virtually all of the structural strength.

Composites (also known as Hybrid Windows) are start since early 1998 and combine materials like aluminium + pvc or wood to obtain aesthetics of one material with the functional benefits of another.

A typical installation of insulated glazing windows with uPVC window frames.

A special class of PVC window frames, uPVC window frames, became widespread since the late 20th century, particularly in Europe: there were 83.5 million installed by 1998[21] with numbers still growing as of 2012.[22]

Low-emissivity coated panes reduce heat transfer by radiation, which, depending on which surface is coated, helps prevent heat loss (in cold climates) or heat gains (in warm climates).

High thermal resistance can be obtained by evacuating or filling the insulated glazing units with gases such as argon or krypton, which reduces conductive heat transfer due to their low thermal conductivity. Performance of such units depends on good window seals and meticulous frame construction to prevent entry of air and loss of efficiency.

Modern double-pane and triple-pane windows often include one or more low-e coatings to reduce the window's U-factor (its insulation value, specifically its rate of heat loss). In general, soft-coat low-e coatings tend to result in a lower solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) than hard-coat low-e coatings.

Modern windows are usually glazed with one large sheet of glass per sash, while windows in the past were glazed with multiple panes separated by glazing bars, or muntins, due to the unavailability of large sheets of glass. Today, glazing bars tend to be decorative, separating windows into small panes of glass even though larger panes of glass are available, generally in a pattern dictated by the architectural style at use. Glazing bars are typically wooden, but occasionally lead glazing bars soldered in place are used for more intricate glazing patterns.

Many windows have movable window coverings such as blinds or curtains to keep out light, provide additional insulation, or ensure privacy. Windows allow natural light to enter, but too much can have negative effects such as glare and heat gain. Additionally, while windows let the user see outside, there must be a way to maintain privacy on in the inside.[23] Window coverings are practical accommodations for these issues.

Main article: Daylighting

Historically, windows are designed with surfaces parallel to vertical building walls. Such a design allows considerable solar light and heat penetration due to the most commonly occurring incidence of sun angles. In passive solar building design, an extended eave is typically used to control the amount of solar light and heat entering the window(s).

An alternative method is to calculate an optimum window mounting angle that accounts for summer sun load minimization, with consideration of actual latitude of the building. This process has been implemented, for example, in the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California—in which most of the fenestration is designed to reflect summer heat load and help prevent summer interior over-illumination and glare, by canting windows to nearly a 45 degree angle.

Main article: Photovoltaics

Photovoltaic windows not only provide a clear view and illuminate rooms, but also convert sunlight to electricity for the building.[24] In most cases, translucent photovoltaic cells are used.

Passive solar windows allow light and solar energy into a building while minimizing air leakage and heat loss. Properly positioning these windows in relation to sun, wind, and landscape—while properly shading them to limit excess heat gain in summer and shoulder seasons, and providing thermal mass to absorb energy during the day and release it when temperatures cool at night—increases comfort and energy efficiency. Properly designed in climates with adequate solar gain, these can even be a building's primary heating system.

A window covering is a shade or screen that provides multiple functions. Some coverings, such as drapes and blinds provide occupants with privacy. Some window coverings control solar heat gain and glare. There are external shading devices and internal shading devices.[25] Low-e window film is a low-cost alternative to window replacement to transform existing poorly-insulating windows into energy-efficient windows. For high-rise buildings, smart glass can provide an alternative.

Window Place

Window Replacement Tax Credit Kentucky